per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
1
27
10.22099/jaa.2011.3387
3387
Research Paper
نقش ویژگیهای معاملات سهام بر نقدشوندگی سهام در بورس اوراق بهادار تهران
The Role of Stocks' Trading Characteristics in Stock Liquidity in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
ناصر ایزدی نیا
naser.ezadinia@gmail.com
1
منیژه رامشه
mramsheh@yahoo.com
2
چکیده <br />پژوهش حاضر به بررسی ارتباط ویژگیهای معاملات سهام با شاخصهای متفاوت نقدشوندگی در بورس اوراق بهادار تهران میپردازد. شاخصهای نقدشوندگی بکار رفته در این پژوهش عبارتند از گردش سهام، نسبت عدم نقدشوندگی آمیهود، معیار بازده صفر، اختلاف قیمت پیشنهادی خرید و فروش نسبی سهام و معیار تعدیل تعداد روزهای بدون معامله بر اساس گردش سهام. در راستای دستیابی به اهداف پژوهش، اطلاعات 38 شرکت برای دوره زمانی 1382 لغایت 1388 به طور ماهانه مورد مطالعه قرار گرفت. برای آزمون فرضیههای پژوهش از رگرسیون چند متغیره با استفاده از دادههای ترکیبی استفاده گردیده است. نتایج پژوهش بیانگر آن است که ویژگیهای معاملات سهام، عوامل اصلی نقدشوندگی هستند. این یافته که برخی شاخصها به گونهای متفاوت با ویژگیهای معاملات سهام برخورد میکنند، نشان میدهد که نقدشوندگی یک مفهوم پیچیده چندبعدی است که هر شاخص فقط میتواند جنبهای از نقدشوندگی را منعکس کند. <br />
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
The Role of Stocks' Trading Characteristics in Stock Liquidity in Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE)
Dr. N. Izadinia M. Ramsheh
Isfahan University Islamic Azad University, Fereydan Branch
Introduction
Liquidity is an important issue for securities traded in financial markets. A certain level of liquidity is necessary for securities to be traded in the quantites required in a timely fashion whithout any price discount. The goal of this paper is to examine the relationship between different liquidity proxies and stocks' trading characteristics for listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange. In this paper, five different liquidity proxies are introduced. The proxies are stock turnover, the illiquidity ratio, zero return measure, proportional bid–ask spread and turnover adjusted number of zero daily volumes. Stocks' trading characteristics include stock price, trading volume, return volatility, absolute return, and Beedles' thin trading measure.
The efforts are significant as liquidity plays an important role in asset pricing, and the selection of liquidity proxies in a research design would have considerable influence on empirical results.
Research hypothesis
The underlying principle in the relationship between liquidity and stock characteristics is based on order execution and inventory control (Stoll, 2000). Large trading volume reduces the risk of carrying inventory for a period of time, which should increase stock liquidity. Higher return volatility increases the risk of holding inventory, and it should have a negative effect on stock liquidity. Stock price controls the effects of price discreteness and can be used as a proxy for risk, as low price stocks tend to be riskier. Absolute stock return can be treated as an alternative measure of volatility. The advantage of this measure is that it is simple to calculate, particularly in comparison to conventional volatility measures. Similar to volatility, absolute stock return should have a negative influence on liquidity. A thin trading measure proposed by Beedles, Dodd and Officer (1988) is used to create a crude proxy for the proportion of missing daily returns. Since the Beedles measure aims to capture the thin trading aspect of stock illiquidity, it should be negatively related with liquidity. Thus, out testable hypotheses are:
Hypothesis 1: Price per share is expected to be related to liquidity.
Hypothesis 2: Trading volume is expected to be related to liquidity.
Hypothesis 3: Return volatility is expected to be related to liquidity.
Hypothesis 4: Absolute return is expected to be related to liquidity.
Hypothesis 5: Beedles' thin trading measure is expected to be related to liquidity.
Methods
This research is of descriptive-correlative type. The study sample includes 38 companies listed in Tehran Stock Exchange. The analysis in this paper is carried out at the monthly level from January 2003 to September 2009. For hypothesis testing, this study uses multivariable regressiones for pooled data. The variables being considered are liquidity proxies as the dependent variable and Stocks' Trading Characteristics as independent variables.This paper employs five widely used liquidity proxies that are stock turnover (TO), the illiquidity ratio (ILLIQUID), proportional spread (PBA), the zero return measure (ZERO) and turnover-adjusted number of zero daily volumes (LM). Each is discussed in turn below:
<em>TO</em><sub>i,t</sub> = <em>vol<sub>i,t</sub> / share<sub>i,t</sub></em>
Where <em>vol<sub>i,t</sub></em>is the total trading volume for stock i in month t and <em>share<sub>i,t</sub></em>, t is the number of shares outstanding for stock i in month t.
where is the return for stock i on day d in month t, and <em>v<sub>i,d,t</sub></em> is the trading volume for stock i on day d in month t and D is the number of daily observations for stock i in month t.
Where is the daily closing ask (bid) prices for stock i on day d in month t and D is the number of daily observations for stock i in month t.
<em>ZERO<sub>i,t </sub>= zeroreturn</em><sub>i,t </sub>/ <em>tradingday<sub>i,t</sub></em>
Where <em>zeroreturn</em><sub>i,t</sub> is the number of zero daily return days for stock i in month t, and <em>tradingday<sub>i,t</sub></em> is the number of trading days for stock i in month t.
Where is the number of zero daily trading volumes for stock i in month t; is the stock turnover rate for stock i in month t. is the total number of trading days in the market in month t.
The trading characteristics include PRICE (price per share at the end of each month), VARIANCE (return volatility of daily stock returns in each month), VOLUME (trading volume aggregated in each month), (ABSR) Absolute monthly stock return and Beedles that is defined as:
<em>BEEDLES = </em>{100 – [100/(<em>n</em> + 1)]}/100
Where n is the difference in time (measured in days) between the last price date and last trading date in each month.
Results
This paper examined the influences of trading characteristics on stock liquidity. Consistent with the literature, trading characteristics are important determinants of liquidity. In general the impact of the trading characteristics on PBA and LM is consistent with our hypotheses. However, their relationships with stock turnover exhibit a somewhat different pattern than the other liquidity proxies.This result suggests that the source of the stock turnover is not related to stock characteristics that are important for the other proxies. Notably, we have been silent on the question of what is the “best” liquidity proxy. This research issue is beyond the scope of the current study. However, as noted in Goyenko et al. (2009), the selection of liquidity proxies in an empirical design depends on what exactly one wants to capture. Our results support their assertion, as liquidity is multidimensional and can be captured by differentmeasures of trading activity. The current study shows that through firm trading characteristics, we can better understand the sources of liquidity.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3387_bba6d825fc39ffed0618d15e2ad7f055.pdf
ویژگیهای معاملات سهام
نقدشوندگی سهام
شاخصهای نقدشوندگی سهام
بورس اوراق بهادار تهران
Keywords: Stocks' trading characteristics
Stock liquidity
Stock liquidity proxies
Tehran Stock Exchange
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
29
54
10.22099/jaa.2011.3388
3388
Research Paper
بررسی رابطهی بین مدیریت سود و مسئوولیتپذیری اجتماعی شرکتهای پذیرفته شده در بورس اوراق بهادار تهران
Investigating the relationship between Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility of Accepted Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange
شکرالله خواجوی
hkhajavi@rose.shirazu.ac.ir
1
انور بایزیدی
2
سعید جبارزاده
jabbarzadeh.s@gmail.com
3
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
Investigating the relationship between Earnings Management and Corporate Social Responsibility of Accepted Companies in Tehran Stock Exchange
Dr. S. Khajavi A. Bayazidi
Shiraz University
Dr. S. Jabbarzadeh Kangarluei
Islamic Azad University - Urmia Branch
Introduction
Based on information approach, earnings concept indicates output of economic activities; however, as an essential criterion it is suspicious. Actual accounting has given considerable right to managers in determining of the earnings during different periods. In fact, based on this accounting system type, the managers have mass control on time recognizing some of the revenue and expense items. This subject causes an event named earnings management. Earnings management is the process of taking wise steps within the limits of GAAP to achieve the expected earnings.
Optional acts of the managers by earnings management may provide the background to hide real value of assets and financial position, and create negative outcome for stockholders, employees, society, managers’ and their joy security.
On the other hand, social responsibility pays attention to ethical subjects with relation to behavior and decision making of the company about subjects such as human resource management, environmental sponsor, occupational health, social relationships, and the relation to customers and suppliers.
Taking part in social responsibility activities, not only improves the stockholders’ satisfaction, but has a positive effect on company’ credits, that is, the disclosure on company’s social responsibility creates a favorite picture of company among the stockholders.
Earnings management behaviors may threaten the stakeholders’ interests, so, it’s expected the managers that manage earnings consider the social responsibility more because of satisfy action of the stakeholders.
This study investigates the empirical relationship between earnings management and company’s social responsibility using data from the Tehran Stock Exchange.
Research Questions or Hypothesis
Inthis study our hypotheses are:
H1: there is a significant relationship between social responsibility and earnings management of listed companies in TSE.
H2: there is a significant relationship between company performance and earnings management of listed companies in TSE.
H3: there is a significant relationship between company performance and social responsibility of listed companies in TSE.
H4: social responsibility side by side with to earnings management behaviors has a deductive effect on performance of listed companies in TSE.
H5: there is a significant relationship between organizational commitment and earnings management of listed companies in TSE.
H6: there is a significant relationship between organizational commitment and performance of listed companies in TSE.
Methods
The empirical methods used include multiple regression models, correlation tests, and Granger causality tests.
Results
Findings show that there is a negative relation between corporate social responsibility and earnings management, and 16% of CSR variation is affected by company size, financial resources and EM, adversely. Too, Corporate Financial Performance (CFP) has positive relation with EM and has negative relation with CSR, but CSR mid EM reduces adverse effect of CSR on CFP, and improves Financial Performance. Organizational commitment has negative relation with EM and CFP.
Discussion and Conclusion
Findings revealed that the earnings management of social responsibility had less stability during research period. Indicating that the earnings management is affected by factors other than CSR.
Iranian managers do not use CSR as a shield for EM subject or do not need to hide behind this shield, because attention to such responsibilities cause company performance reduction in short-time.
Granger causality test shows that organizational commitment, company financial performance, and financial resources may be the cause of the earnings management in listed companies of TSE.
The reason of deviation of the results of this study from foreign studies especially in investigating the relationship between earnings management and social responsibility, may be a lack of social responsibility and suitable knowledge of this subject among Iranian’ managers.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3388_5bacce640fa2548971da4cedb5944694.pdf
واژههای کلیدی: مدیریت سود1
مسئوولیتپذیری اجتماعی شرکت
2 عملکرد مالی شرکت3
Keywords: Earnings Management (EM)
Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) and Corporate Financial Performance (CFP)
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
55
89
10.22099/jaa.2011.3392
3392
Research Paper
بررسی عوامل موثر بر ساختار سرمایه از دیدگاه تئوری نمایندگی
Investigating the Factors Affecting the Capital Structure from the Viewpoint of Agency Theory
محمد حسین ستایش
setayesh@shirazu.ac.ir
1
محمد منفرد مهارلویی
2
فهیمه ابراهیمی
f_ebrahimi596@yahoo.com
3
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
Investigating the Factors Affecting the Capital Structure from the Viewpoint of Agency Theory
Dr. M. H. Setayesh M. Monfared Maharlouie F. Ebrahimi
Shiraz University
Introduction
In accordance with modern financing literature, agency conflicts are considered as one of the determining factors of the capital structure of companies. In agency theory, increased use of liabilities in the capital structure of the company is introduced as one of the ways to reduce agency costs, as the increased use of liabilities in the capital structure of the company leads to decrease in conflicts of interest between managers and shareholders by reducing the need for financing through owner's equity. On the other hand, the results of several studies suggest that agency conflicts are considered as one of the determining factors of capital structure of the companies. Moreover, financing decisions, as one of the strategic decisions in managing companies, are influenced by the mechanism of corporate governance.
Given the above, it can be concluded that the decrease in agency conflicts is related to financing through liability and there is also a relationship between financing decisions and agency costs and the mechanism of corporate governance. Hence, in this study, the factors affecting the capital structure of companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange are examined from the viewpoint of agency theory. Financing decisions of companies are complex processes and current theories, at best, can only explain certain aspects of diversity and complexity of financing choices. From management point of view, capital structure decisions are not only determined by internal and external factors affecting risk and control, but also values, goals, priorities and demands of management are very important inputs for financing decisions; In particular, financing decisions of the company are influenced by management conflicting incentives and managers' incentives for opportunistic actions can be influenced by corporate governance. On the other hand, it is argued that effectiveness of corporate investing decisions and the way of enjoying and using company's assets by managers in order to have more sales is also a factor affecting capital structure. Moreover, the results of previous studies show that profitability and growth are of effective factors on capital structure.
Hypothesis
In order to achieve the objectives of this research, the following hypothesis are developed and tested:
1) There is a significant relationship between corporate governance and financial leverage.
1-1) There is a significant relationship between ownership concentration and financial leverage.
1-2) There is a significant relationship between the percentage of outside directors on the board and financial leverage.
1-3) There is a significant relationship between the duality roles of the CEO and chairman and financial leverage.
2) There is a significant relationship between agency costs and financial leverage.
2-1) There is a significant relationship between assets turnover ratio and financial leverage.
2-2) There is a significant relationship between the ratio of operating expense to sales and financial leverage.
3) There is a significant relationship between profitability and financial leverage.
3-1) There is a significant relationship between ROA and financial leverage.
3-2) There is a significant relationship between DPS and financial leverage.
4) There is a significant relationship between growth and financial leverage.
4-1) There is a significant relationship between Tobin’s Q ratio and financial leverage.
Methods
The variables being considered are: book leverage and market leverage as the dependent variables, ownership concentration, the percentage of outside directors on the board, duality roles of the CEO and chairman, assets turnover, the ratio of operating expense to sales, ROA, DPS and Tobin’s Q ratio; and the control variables are assets structure, size and age of the company. In this research, 106 accepted companies in Tehran Stock Exchange, within the period 1383 to 1387 are investigated. For statistical analysis and to test hypothesis, the panel data regression are used.
Results
In this study, the factors affecting the capital structure of companies accepted in Tehran Stock Exchange was examined from the viewpoint of agency theory. The results obtained from examining these theories show that ownership concentration doesn't have a meaningful relationship with book leverage, but it has a positive meaningful relationship with market leverage which is in accordance with the study of Cespedes et al. (2009) and Fosberg (2004) and contrary to the results of Theis and Casey (1999) study. Also, the results show that the percentage of outside directors on the board and the duality roles of the CEO and chairman, according to Hassan and Butt (2009) and UgIurlu (2000) do not have any meaningful relationship with book leverage and market leverage. Contrary to Theis and Casey (1999) results, DPS doesn't have a meaningful relation with book leverage and market leverage. On the other hand, in accordance with Firth et al. (2000), natural logarithm of assets turnover ratio has a negative meaningful relation with book leverage and market leverage. There is a meaningful relationship between natural logarithm of the ratio of operating expense to sale and ROA and company's growth, and book leverage, but there is not any meaningful relation between these variables and market leverage. Reflecting on the obtained results, it can be understood that in both book leverage and market leverage, agency costs criteria are more than other variables.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3392_8396e9f09ccffca7fc51c6df329210cd.pdf
ساختار سرمایه
تئوری نمایندگی
راهبری شرکتی
اهرم دفتری
اهرم بازار
Keywords: Capital Structure
Agency Theory
Corporate Governance
Book Leverage
Market Leverage
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
91
119
10.22099/jaa.2011.3390
3390
Research Paper
تعیین عوامل موثر بر عملکرد شرکتهای بورسی با استفاده از روش گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته (GMM) و حداقل مربعات تعمیم یافته برآوردی (EGLS)
A Study of Influential Factors in Stock Returns and Profitability in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE): GMM & GLS Models
مهدی مشکی
mhd.meshki@yahoo.com
1
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
A Study of Influential Factors in Stock Returns and Profitability in the Tehran Stock Exchange (TSE): GMM & GLS Models
<em> </em>
Dr. M. Meshki
University of Payame Noor
Introduction
The capital asset pricing model (CAPM) of Sharpe (1964) and Lintner (1965) was the most widely recognized explanation of stock prices and expected returns. It gives a prediction of risk of an asset or a portfolio and its expected return which thereby helps in evaluating potential returns of investments.
Fama and French (1992) found that the cross section of average stock returns for the period 1963-1990 for US stocks is not fully explained by the CAPM beta and that stock risks are multidimensional. Two of these dimensions of risk, they suggest, are proxied by size and the ratio of book value of common equity to its market value (BE/ME). Fama and French (1993) came up with a model for explaining stock returns using three factors: market, book to market, and size. This model was supportive of Banz (1981) who claimed that ‘size effect’ was present for more than 40 years and that the CAPM was misspecified.
Lakonishok, Shleifer and Vishny (1994) suggest that sorting firms on high and low B/M ratios exposes the investor to overreact in good and bad times. This cause them to over estimate stock prices for low B/M firms and underestimate them for high B/M firms, i.e. distressed firms. The ultimate result after the correction of the overreaction is high returns for high B/M stocks (value stocks) and lower returns for low B/M stocks (glamour stocks). This investor reaction leading to determination of stock returns is not explained by the CAPM.
Hypotheses
In this paper, we investigate of factors affecting stock returns and profitability (such as size, beta, leverage, return of market and book-to-market equity ratio) among Irans’s listed companies in Tehran Stock Exchange using panel data. The hypotheses
tested in this study are the following :
Hypothesis 1: There is a significant relationship between Size and Stock Return.
Hypothesis 2: There is a significant relationship between BV/MV and Stock Return.
Hypothesis 3: There is a significant relationship between two variables Size and BV/MV with Stock Return.
Hypothesis 4: There is a significant relationship between Size and profitability.
Hypothesis 5: There is a significant relationship between BV/MV and profitability.
Hypothesis 6: There is a significant relationship between two variables Size and BV/MV with profitability.
Estimation method
We use panel data method to estimate the parameters of return and profitability. The panel data approach has several advantages compared to the cross-sectional approach often used in financial research.
1. Due to an increase in the number of data points, degrees of freedom are increased and multicollinearity problem is reduced thus the efficiency of econometric estimates is improved.
2. Panel data can control for individual heterogeneity due to hidden factors, which, if neglected in time-series or cross-section estimations lead to biased results. Heterogeneity is captured by firm specific fixed effects or random effects components based on the characteristics of the data set.
Panel data follows a given sample of individuals over time, and thus provides multiple observations on each individual in the sample. Panel data combines the features of time series and cross-section. Panel data usually provides the researcher a large number of data points, increasing the degrees of freedom and reducing the collinaerity among explanatory variables; hence improving the efficiency of econometric estimates. Therefore two main models are tested:
1) the static panel data with fixed effect and
2) the dynamic panel data.
However, the fixed effects model may give biased and inconsistent estimators because the error term may be correlated with the lagged variable. To deal with variables that may be correlated with the error term, we use instrumental variables. We use the Arellano and Bond (1991) two-step GMM (Generalized Method of Moments) estimator for our dynamic model which allows for heteroskedasticity across firms. The GMM estimator is consistent if there is no second order serial correlation between error terms of the first-differenced equation.
Discussion of the Results
This paper contains significant and consistent results. Using two variants of panel data analysis, we attempt to find the determinants of stock return and profitability in the Tehran Stock Exchange for the period 1381-1388. The results of testing hypotheses for each of the eight years and the pooled sample show that the size of companies, Beta and Returm of market are positively related to Stock Return. Lewllen (1999), Allen and Cleary (1998), Mukherji et al (1997), Barber and Lyon (1997), Fama and French (1992), and Chan et al (1991) found a positive and remarkably great relationship between BV/MV and the Stock Return. Surprisingly the findings of the research did not confirm the existence of any positive relationship between the two variables. This study also show that the size and leverage is positively related to profitability but book-to-market equity ratio is negatively correlated with it. This study suggests that there is no existence of a linear relationship between profitability and return of market.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3390_55d68463b6390aed3c86999efa477ea1.pdf
بازدهی
سودآوری
مدل دادههای تلفیقی
گشتاورهای تعمیم یافته
حداقل مربعات تعمیم یافته
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
121
143
10.22099/jaa.2011.3391
3391
Research Paper
تبیین رابطهی بین ویژگیهای مالکیتی و شرکتی با ساختار حاکمیت شرکتی (شرکتهای پذیرفته شده در بورس اوراق بهادار تهران)
Firm and Ownership Characters and Corporate Governance
(in the Tehran Stock Exchange)
اسفنیار ملکیان
e_malekian35@yahoo.com
1
عباسعلی دریایی
2
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
Firm and Ownership Characters and Corporate Governance
(in the Tehran Stock Exchange)
Dr. E. Malekian A. A. Daryaei
University of Mazandaran Azad University branch of Esfahan
Introduction
Both accountants and financial economists and financial management have devoted considerable attention to the impact of governance structures. The accounting literature documents that these factors have a substantial impact on earnings management, while the finance literature shows that they likewise affect financial performance. Consistent with past research, our paper is similar to Black (2001) and Garay & González (2008), who tested the relation between corporate governance and firm value in Russia and Venezuela as transition economies characterized by weak investor protection. The evidence we show here adds to the growing literature worldwide that indicates that firms can differentiate themselves by adopting better corporate governance practices and policies. That is, even in a weak investor protection environment, firms can increase their market value by adopting good corporate governance measures.
Hypothesis
Corporate governance practice has positive relationship with firm and ownership characters.
Methods
Most studies on firm-level evidence on corporate governance practices gather their information using questionnaires filled by the companies themselves. This methodology presents various potential problems, among others: a low response rate, especially from those companies whose corporate governance practices are poor (self-selection bias); and, for the firms that do respond to the questionnaire, there is a tendency to present themselves not as they are at the moment when the questionnaire is being completed, but as they want to see themselves in the future (self-report bias). In our paper we follow a different route to construct our CGS. In the same spirit of Garay & González (2008), we answer the questions ourselves using publicly available information. The Corporate Governance Score (CGS) was constructed based on 21 questions pertaining to different corporate governance practices. We answered these questions for each of the 125 Iranian firms that were listed in the TSE. The answer to each question is either “Yes” or “No.” If the answer is “Yes,” we add 1 and if the answer is “No,” we add 0. All answers are based on publicly available information. These 21 Questions were answered after reviewing each firm’s financial statements, bylaws, minutes of the boards of directors and shareholders’ meetings, and annual reports available at WWW.rdis.com.
Results, discussion and conclusion
Result show that role of non-executive managers is very weak in Iran and there is seemingly no concern about supervising organizational morality. The institutional stockholders have not been able to use their power utility and facilities to improve the governance indexes.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3391_8c5f834b2930d4a722006eed25359b38.pdf
رتبهی حاکمیت شرکتی
سهامداران نهادی
سهامداران عمده
مدیران غیرموظف
Keyword: Corporate governance score
Institutional Shareholder
Block Shareholder
Non-executive managers
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
145
170
10.22099/jaa.2011.3394
3394
Research Paper
ارزیابی توانمندی اقلام تعهدی و اجزای آن در پیش بینی سود غیرعادی و تعیین ارزش شرکت با ملاحظهی علامت سود غیرعادی
An Assessment of Accruals and its Components Ability in Forecasting Abnormal Earnings and Explaining Value of Company Considering the Sign of Abnormal Earnings
عباس هاشمی
hashemi.acc@yahoo.com
1
افسانه سروش نیا
2
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
An Assessment of Accruals and its Components Ability in Forecasting Abnormal Earnings and Explaining Value of Company Considering the Sign of Abnormal Earnings
A. Sorushyar
Islamic Azad University,
Tehran Science and Research Branch
Dr. S. A. Hashemi
Isfahan Uiversity
Introduction
On the basis of theoretical principles of financial reporting, the primary goal of financial reporting is to assist the investors to make economic decisions. Economic decisions are related to optimal allocation of the resources. One of the most important decisions is related to investment in stocks which is itself considered as a function of the value of the investment seeking company. In its conceptual statement of financial accounting No .1, the Financial Accounting Standard Board (FASB) announced the presentation of useful information to the investors, creditors and other potential and present users for assessing the amounts, timing and uncertainty of cash flow as one of the goals of financial reporting. In spite of the knowledge of FASB about the importance of the amounts contained in financial reports, it has presented little guidance on the manner of using these amounts in its conceptual statement. Therefore, in order to fill out this gap, valuation models based on accounting have provided guidance in this area (Barth et al, 2005: 312). Accounting valuation models by information in financial statements evaluate a company. In the collection of the financial statements, the earnings enjoys special position and within the framework of the accepted accounting principles and in the accrual accounting system it includes two parts of cash flow and accrual. Regarding the ability of the management in the application of different methods of accounting for distortion and adjustment of the earnings through personal drive by accruals and with regard to the existing empirical evidence in this area based on the information content of these items, it is reasoned that accruals can be taken into consideration as an index for the determination of the improvement or the bankruptcy of the company (Palepu, 2000). Therefore, study of the effect of the accruals and its components on the value of the company seems necessary to assist the investors for investment decision making.
Research Questions or Hypothesis
In this paper the ability of aggregated accruals and its components in forecasting abnormal earnings and explaining value of companies have been evaluated. The main purpose of this paper is answering the question: "Does disaggregating accruals to its four main components and disaggregating abnormal earnings considering the sign of abnormal earnings improve forecasting abnormal earnings and explaining values of companies?" Four main components of accruals are change in receivables, change in payables, change in inventory and depreciation. For this purpose six hypotheses are compiled.
Methods
For testing the research hypothesis three linear information valuation models based on the framework of Ohlson Model are used. Then, for each linear information model distribution of prediction errors is constructed. For each distribution, absolute percentage error is calculated and to assess the statistical significance of differences in prediction errors, means for absolute percentage error are compared. To estimate the models, we use financial information of 70 sample companies for the period of 1995 to 2008 and pooled data method.
Results
The results indicate that the aggregated accruals have power for decreasing prediction errors of company value and abnormal earnings. Furthermore, four main components of accruals can decrease prediction errors of abnormal earnings but can not decrease prediction errors of company value. These results hold both the general model and the disaggregated sign model. Another result of this paper indicates that aggregating abnormal earnings by its sign does not decrease prediction errors of abnormal earnings and company value significantly.
Discussion and conclusion
In general, it is inferred from the findings of the present research that in spite of the aggregated accruals in the estimation of abnormal earnings and value of company that not significantly improve forecasting abnormal earnings and explaining value of company. These findings are also true for the four components of accruals to explaining value of company. Additionally, the sign of abnormal earnings has no significant effect on the improvement of the prediction of abnormal earnings.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3394_191c3bc872b0ba748c679d63644aaf72.pdf
ارزش شرکت
سود غیر عادی
اقلام تعهدی
اجزای اقلام تعهدی
Keywords: Value of Company
Abnormal Earnings
Accruals
Components of Accrual
per
پیشرفتهای حسابداری
2008-9988
2008-9988
2011-08-23
3
1
171
196
10.22099/jaa.2011.3395
3395
Research Paper
مقایسهی مدلهای تشکیل پرتفوی سهام مبتنی بر تصادفی و تصادفی فازی بودن بازده مورد انتظار در بورس اوراق بهادار تهران*
A Comparison of Portfolio Selection Models Based On the Random and the Fuzzy Random Security Returns in Tehran Stock Exchange
محمود یحیی زاده فر
m.yahyazadeh@umz.ac.ir
1
عبدالحمید صفایی قادیکلایی
2
مهدی خاکپور
3
<em>Journal of Accounting Advances (J.A.A)</em>
<em>Vol. 3, No. 1, Spring & Summer 2011, Ser. 60/3</em>
Extended Abstract
A Comparison of Portfolio Selection Models Based On the Random and the Fuzzy Random Security Returns in Tehran Stock Exchange
Dr. M. Yahyazadehfar Dr. A. Safaie Ghadikolaie M. Khakpour
University of Mazandaran
Introduction
One of the basic problems of applied finance is the optimal selection of stocks by conflicting objective of maximizing future return and minimizing investment risk. The first systematic treatment of this dilemma is the mean variance approach proposed by Markowitz. Markowitz combined the optimization and probability theory to solve the dilemma. In Markowitz’s mean variance model, the security returns are assumed to be random variables, and the investors are postulated to establish equilibrium between the conflicted objectives, which the investment risk and return are respectively quantified by mean and variance of portfolio of security.
A basic assumption behind Markowitz’s mean variance model is that the situation of the stock market in future can be correctly reflected by security data in the past, that is, mean and covariance of a portfolio of securities in the future are similar to the past ones. However, there are so many uncertain factors that this assumption cannot be guaranteed for the real ever changing stock markets. This uncertainty can be fuzzy variables, and consequently, a portfolio of securities can be selected on the assumption that security returns are considered to be fuzzy variables. A fuzzy variable is a measurable function from credibility space to a set of real numbers. Sometimes, fuzziness and randomness simultaneously appear in a system. A hybrid variable describes the quantities with fuzziness and randomness. A hybrid variable is a measurable function from a chance space to set of real numbers. A hybrid variable can be fuzzy random variable and random fuzzy variable. A fuzzy random variable is a measurable function from a probability space to a collection of fuzzy sets, and a random fuzzy variable is a function from a possibility space to a collection of random variables.
Another Markowitz’s assumption is homogenous expectations that all the investors share the same expected returns and predicted variance and covariance about the future is unrealistic in real world.
In this paper, λ mean variance portfolio selection model which assumes security returns are fuzzy random variables and considers the investors’ subjective opinions for estimating the rate of return of each security that is compared with Markowitz’s mean variance portfolio selection model assuming security returns are random variable, thus considering homogenous expectation for the investors.
Research hypothesis
In this paper, we try to answer the question of “what differences are there between the efficient frontier of the λ mean variance portfolio selection model and Markowitz’s model?”. In order to compare efficient frontier of the λ mean variance portfolio selection model and Markowitz’s model, two hypotheses are considered as follows:
Hypothesis 1: In a given level of portfolio risk, optimistic portfolio return is completely greater than Markowitz’s portfolio return and Markowitz portfolio return is completely greater than pessimistic portfolio return.
Hypothesis 2: In a given level of portfolio return, optimistic portfolio risk is completely less than Markowitz’s portfolio risk and Markowitz portfolio risk is completely less than pessimistic portfolio return.
Methods
Two types of data are collected in this research. First, the historical security returns are collected monthly from Tehran Stock Exchange with respect to the limitation that the company trading symbols remain open for 45 consecutive days from March 2005 to March 2010. Based on the limitation, the numbers of companies are obtained 63. Because of collecting questionnaires and receiving better answers from the quality aspect, 30 companies are selected considering simultaneously more mean of days which company symbols remain open and the more mean of monthly historical returns during the years.
The second is the maximum and minimum expected returns which are collected by questionnaires. In this paper they are considered by experts who are the managers and staffs of the brokerage firms and investment companies. The brokerage firms and investment companies are 121 totally. Because some companies may not answer to the questionnaires, the estimation sample is applied to determine how many questionnaires must be collected.
Finally, these data are used in the λ mean variance and Markowitz’s model to calculate risk and return portfolios.
Results
SPSS software program is applied to test the hypotheses according to analysis of variance (ANOVA). Because SPSS software is used for two tailed test, first, hypotheses 1 and 2 are examined as two tailed test, then, Tukey’s test is performed. Testing hypotheses showsis accepted and rejected. Considering the results of the hypothesis testing, the research question can be answered as Markowitz’s efficient frontier is under the optimistic efficient frontier and above the pessimistic efficient frontier.
Conclusion and discussion
One of the fundamental assumptions behind the Markowitz’s model is that the future situation of the stock market can be correctly reflected by security data in the past, which future security return is calculated on the assumption that security return is random variable. The other basic assumption of the Markowitz’s model is homogenous expectation, that is, all investors share the same expected return. These problematic assumptions have been dealt with λ mean variance model on the following assumptions. First, security return is fuzzy random variable. Second, investors have heterogeneous expectation. In fact, investors use experts’ judgment according to left and right spread of security returns and select their subjective degree of optimism-pessimism. The result of the research indicating two new assumptions lead to Markowitz’s efficient frontier placed between the optimistic and pessimistic efficient frontier. Investigating how this research results in selecting appropriate portfolio requires more researches.
http://jaa.shirazu.ac.ir/article_3395_fad79a07cab741f7ba4075e457e446b4.pdf
تئـوری مجـموعه فـازی
متغیـر تصـادفی فـازی
میـزان ذهینت خوشبینی- بدبینی سرمایه-گذار
Keywords: Fuzzy Set Theory
Fuzzy Random Variable
Subjective Degree of Investor's Optimism-Pessimism